1. The concept of import and export
Under the provisions of the regime and organizations manage business operations import-export business import and export right to serve the economies of developed countries on the basis of exploitation and use effectively the potential features and advantages availability of labor, land and other resources of the economy, solve jobs for working people, renewing technical equipment and process technologies for the production, completion accelerate the industrialization process of the country, meet the basic requirements and urgency of production and life, while contributing to guide the production, consumption and regulation of supply and demand to stabilize the domestic market .
Import-export trade business on an international scale. It is not the act of trading individual which is both a system of trading relations complex organizations both inside and outside the targeted profit, boosting commodity production development, transformation economic structures, stabilize and gradually improve the living standards of the people. export activity is easy to bring effective mutations but can cause great damage because it faced an economic system from external stakeholders in participating countries export not easily controlled institutional.
Import and export is the sale of goods with foreign countries in order to develop production and business life. Song purchases here are distinctions more complicated in countries like dealing with people who have different nationalities, the broader market is difficult to control, purchasing through intermediaries account for a large proportion, the currency of payment in foreign currency strong, transporting goods across the border gate, the gate of different countries must comply with international practices as well as local.
Operation export and import are implementing many professional, multiple stages of investigating foreign markets, choice of goods imports, traders transaction, the steps carried out the transaction negotiation and signing co-hosted implementation of the contract until the goods transported to the port of transferring ownership to the buyer, to complete the payment. Every stitch, every professional must be fully researched, carefully put them in relation with each other, seizing the advantages to ensure the highest efficiency, full service in time for production, domestic consumption.
For people engaged in export and import before entering the study, implementation of operational processes to capture information on commodity demand tastes, consumer habits, ability to expand production, consumption domestic use, its trends. Things that become sticky regularly in thinking each export trader to grasp.
Although export brings many advantages but still exist many drawbacks:
Competition leads to painting purchase export sales. Without the control of the State rigorously will promptly cause the damage to trade with foreign countries. The bad economic activities like smuggling society, tax evasion, or imposing price easy development.
Competition will lead to annexation interplay between economic operators through measures unfair as vandalism impede each other’s work … the management is not simply calculate the economic effect but also must pay importance to the cultural and social ethics.
2. Basic characteristics of export-import
Export and import are two basic operations that constitute foreign trade activities. Export-import trading activity going on outside the national scope. Export-import operations much more complex than domestic business. This is expressed in that:
Large market, difficult to control. Influenced by many different factors such as environmental economics, politics, law … of the different countries. Payment in the amount of foreign currency, goods are transported across national borders, should comply with international trade practice.
Export-import operations of circulation of goods and services between countries, it is very rich and varied, often driven by factors such as policies, laws, culture, politics, … .cua different countries. State management of import-export operations through policy instruments such as tax policy, quotas, and other legal documents, rules of import-export goods, … ..
3. The role of export
3.1. For imports
Import is a critical activity in international trade, import directly impact and decide on production and life. Import is to strengthen the material and technical basis of advanced technology, modern production and consumption of goods for which domestic production can not be produced, or the production does not meet demand. Imports also to replace, that is imported stuff that domestic producers will not benefit by exporting, to do so will impact positively on the balanced development and exploit the potential and advantages of national economy of labor, capital, infrastructure, natural resources and science and technology.
Therefore, imports whose role as follows:
– Imports accelerated process of using the material and technical basis of restructuring the economy towards promoting industrialization and modernization of the country
– Claim in time the imbalance of the economy, to ensure a sustainable development dinh.khai balance falls to the maximum potential and the ability of the economy to economic cycles.
– Import ensure production input for creating stable jobs for employees contribute to improve and enhance the living standards of the people.
– Imports has a positive role to promote exports contribute to improving the production quality of exports, creating a favorable environment for the export of goods to the international market, especially importers.
It can be seen that the role of imports is very important especially for developing countries (including Vietnam) in improving the economic life, change some fields, thanks to enter exports which gained management experience, modern technology … boosting the economy developed rapidly.
However, importers must ensure both consistent with the interests of society have created profitable businesses, jointly and must draw together. To achieve that, the importer must meet the following requirements:
* Savings and efficiency in the use of capital imports: in the transition to economy job market trading between countries are in the international price and payment together with foreign currencies . Therefore, all import contracts should be based on issues of interest and the effect is very basic problems of the country, as well as every business requires the management body as well as every business must:
– Determining import items consistent with the development plan of socio-economic, scientific and technical level of the country and the demand of the people.
– Win a foreign currency for import extra supplies to domestic producers deem beneficial than imports
– Research the market to imported goods prices appropriate beneficial for production service and improve people’s lives.
* Imports of advanced technical equipment modernization:
The import of equipment, machinery and technology transfer receipt, including equipment investment path or aid must master the motto catch goes straight to acquire modern technology. Enter to select and avoid obsolete technology entering the country is seeking to discharge. Not necessarily for the purpose of “saving” the import of old equipment, not used for long, not enough to return have to be replaced. The experience of most developing countries is not to turn his country into a “dumping ground” of the advanced countries.
* Protect and promote domestic production, increased exports
Modern production of many countries around the world is full of warehouses storing excess goods and raw materials. In this context, the import is easier than self-produced in nuoc.Trong conditions fledgling industry of Vietnam, import prices are often cheaper, better quality. But if imports do not pay attention to manufacturing will “strangle” domestic production. So to calculate and take advantage of the advantages of our country in each period in order to protect and expand domestic production has to meet the needs of domestic consumption have generated source of export market expansion foreign.
3.2. For export
Export is a basis of import and business activities to bring big profits, as a means of boosting the economy. Expanding exports to increase foreign exchange earnings and create conditions for the import and infrastructure development. State have always respected and promoted economic sectors driven by exports, encourage all economic sectors to expand exports to tackle jobs and increase foreign exchange earnings.
Such exports have tremendous role, specifically through:
– Exports created primarily for capital imports.
Industrialized country requires huge capital to import machinery, equipment, technology, materials and advanced technologies.
To import capital may be formed from sources such as:
. Joint ventures with foreign investors
. Loans, grants, sponsorships
. Revenue from tourism activities and services
. Labor export
In the capital such as foreign investment, loans and aid … must pay one way or another. For imports, the most important capital is from exports. Exports decide the size and growth rate of imports.
+ Exports contribute economic restructuring to economy extroverted.
+ Exports facilitates related industries have the opportunity to develop
+ Exporters create scalable consumer markets, provides input for production, maximum exploitation of domestic production
+ Exporters create technical and economic prerequisites for innovation regular domestic production capacity. In other words, exports are the basis to create more capital and technology, the advanced technology from the outside world
Through exports, the goods will be involved in the competition on the world market in terms of price and quality. This competition requires a reorganization of production to match market demand.
Exports also requires businesses to keep innovating and perfecting the management of production, sales, improve product quality, lower price.
– Exports create jobs and improve people’s lives. First, manufacturing exports attracting millions of workers, create
funds to import essential consumer items serve the people’s life.
– Exports are the basis for expanding and promoting external economic relations of the country.
Export and foreign economic relations as to the economy closely tied to the international division of labor. Normal activities sooner export advent of external economic activities other it promotes the development of this relationship.
For example, export and production of export promotion credit relations, investment, international transport …
In conclusion, to boost exports are considered matters of strategic importance to economic development, implementing industrialization and modernization of the country.
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4. The main content of the export-import activities goods
4.1. Market research:
Market research in order to get an information system on the market complete, accurate and timely basis for enterprises with the right decisions to meet the needs of the market. Also information obtained from market research as the basis for enterprises to choose the right partner and also as the basis for the transaction process, negotiation, contracting and contract implementation later effective. Enterprises can react flexibly, take the right decisions in time during the transaction negotiations when there is research, learn the correct information and relatively complete.
In addition to research firm grasp of domestic market situation, policies and national legislation related to foreign economic activities, enterprises have to master trading commodities, foreign markets. Market research activities, including market research, domestic and foreign market research. Including market research in the country include the following activities:
Look at the export-import goods, market research and the capacity factors affecting research competitors, study the movements of the business environment. Foreign market research include the following activities: research supply of goods on the international market, the study prices on the international market, …
4.2. Up business plans
Based on market research, then proceed up business plans export-import. The business plan is a specific plan of action of a purchase and sale of goods or services. The business plan is the basis for the professional staff perform tasks, divide large goals into smaller goals specific to business leaders and executive management continuously, strict. Up business plan includes the following major steps:
– Identify the general market situation and market developments
– Evaluation of the ability of the enterprise
– Identify market and consumers
– Determination of the export-import goods, quantity and purchase price
– Determine the economic efficiency of business plans
– Propose measures implemented
4.3. Transaction, negotiation and contracting
– Transactions: After a period of market research, the choice is the customer, business items, set up the business plan, the next step is now necessary to carry out access to sales partners to expedite delivery purchases. Transaction process is the process of exchanging information about the conditions of trade between the parties. Transactions comprising the steps: Ask price, and quote offerings, complete specifications, ordering, acceptance or confirmation.
– Negotiate: is discussed and exchanged the condition of sale between the seller and the buyer to come to the agreement signed the contract. Negotiations often forms: negotiation by mail, telephone talks, talks by meeting directly.
– Signed contract: When the seller and buyer agree on the conditions of trade, will proceed to conclude foreign trade contracts. Contract Foreign trade is an agreement between the buyer and seller in different countries which stipulates the seller must deliver goods, transfer of documents related to the goods and ownership of goods, buyer must pay for the purchase and delivery. Foreign trade contracts can be regarded as signed and become effective upon when all the following conditions:
+ The subject of the contract is the buyer and the seller must have full legal status.
+ The goods under contract are allowed to purchase goods as prescribed by law.
+ International trade contract must contain the principal that the law stipulates.
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